Beginning of Hijrah (Migration) and Welcome in Madinah:
In the beginning, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Aleih Wa Sallam) was shown the Hijrah place, a land of date palm trees, between two mountains, the two stony tracts, in a dream. Up to the time, he (SAWS) was undecided about the place of Hijrah, until it was confirmed and the place was decided through Wahi (Revelation). Then the Prophet (SAWS) directed his followers to migrate to Madinah with the command of Allah, the Almighty. They were received and welcomed in Madinah with enthusiasm and much hospitality. (Seerate Mustafa 1/340)
The Polytheists Plot to Kill the Prophet (SAWS): The polytheists, after observing the Hijrah of the Sahabah (RA) one after another, thought that Rasulullah (SAWS) will migrate today or tomorrow as well. So, they started thinking seriously to prevent him from the Hijrah. They met in all haste. After several milder expedients had been rejected, Abu Jahl opined that he should be killed and for killing one man should be chosen out of every tribe and that each man should strike a blow at him with his sword so that responsibility of the guilt would rest equally on all tribes. The Banu Abd Manaaf was much inferior and therefore would not be able to revenge their kinsman’s death. Iblis, who participated in the meeting pretending to be a Sheikh from Najd, conquered with this opinion.
Following the meeting, Jabraeel (AS) came and informed Rasulullah (SAWS) about the polytheists’ plot. The Prophet (SAWS) informed Abu Bakr (RA) about his plan to migrate. A number of youths were selected for the bloody deed. As the night advanced, the assassins posted themselves round the house of the Prophet (SAWS). They watched all night long, waiting to murder the Prophet (SAWS) when he should leave his house at the early dawn. By some the Prophet (SAWS) had warned of the danger, and he directed Ali (RA) to lie down in his place and wrap himself up in his green clock, which he did. The Prophet (SAWS) miraculously escaped through the window and he appeared to the house of Abu Bakr (RA), unperceived by door. In the meantime, they, looking through a crevice and seeing Ali (RA), whom they mistook for Muhammad (SAWS) himself, asleep, continued watching there until morning.
When Ali (RA) arose, they found themselves deceived. The fury of the Qureish was now unbounded. The news that they would be assassins had returned unsuccessful and Muhammad (SAWS) had escaped aroused their whole energy. A prize of a hundred camels was set upon Muhammad’s head. (Seerate Mustafa 1/344-49)
Then Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) reached a cave on the mountain of Thaur and stayed there for three nights. Abdullah Ibn Abi Bakr who was an intelligent and sagacious youth, used to stay with them overnight. He used to leave them before daybreak so that he would be with Qureish in the morning as if he had spent the night in Makkah. He would keep in mind any plot made against them and when it became dark, he would go and inform them of it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira, the freed slave of Abu Bakr (RA), used to bring the milch sheep (of Abu Bakr) to them a little while after nightfall in order to rest the sheep there. So they always had fresh milk at night, the milk of their sheep, and the milk which they warmed by throwing heated stones in it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira would then call the herd away when it was still dark (before daybreak). He did the same in each of those three nights. Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) had hired a man from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail from the family of Banu Abd Ibn Adi as an expert guide, and he was in alliance with the family of Al-As Ibn Wail As-Sahmi and he was in the religion of the infidels of Quraish. The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and took his promise to bring their camels to the cave of the mountain of Thaur in the morning after three nights later. And when they set out, Aamir Ibn Futhaira and the guide went along with them and the guide led them, along the seashore.” (Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3905)
When the Prophet (SAWS) was on his way to Madinah, Suraqa Ibn Ju’sham followed to get the prize of 100 camels. After approaching them, his horse stumbled and he fell down. He stood up and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether he should harm them or not, and the lot which he disliked came out. Despite that he continued his plot. When he was close to them, suddenly the forelegs of his horse sank into the ground up to the knees and he fell down. The horse got up, but could hardly take out its forelegs from the ground. When it stood up straight again, its forelegs caused dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Latter, he called upon them to feel secure. At this point, he felt that the cause of Rasulullah (SAWS) would become victorious. He informed them the plans of the Qureish concerning them. The Prophet (SAWS) said: ‘Do not tell others about us.’ Then Suraqa requested him to write a statement of security for him. He (SAWS) ordered Amir Ibn Fuhaira, who wrote it on a parchment. Then Rasulullah (SAWS) proceeded on his way.” (Summarised from Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3906)
The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) were also followed by Buraidah Aslami who was with 70 peoples. But at the end, all of them embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/382)
The news of the Prophet’s Hijrah was spread already in Madinah. The Ansaar were waiting eagerly for him and ready to receive with enthusiasm. Anyway, the Prophet (SAWS) reached the place called Qubaa on Monday, 12th Rabiul Awwal 13th year of Prophethood. He stayed for few days in Qubaa, at the home of Kulthoom bin Hadm and constructed Masjidut Taqwaa. After leading Jumuah Salaah, he (SAWS) left for Madinah. In his Khutbah, he didn’t mention any point about his perpetual enemies and didn’t condemn them; rather he highlighted the topic of Taqwaa and the preparation for the Hereafter. When he reached Madinah, everyone was wishing to make him a guest; but he (SAWS) stayed at the home of Abu Ayyub Ansari (RA) according to the will of Allah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/383-93)
1st Hijrah: After Hijrah reaching in Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) was interviewed by some Jew scholars. Some prominent Jews and great Jew scholars like, Maimoon bin Yaameen, Abdullah bin Salam, Abul Qeis embraced Islam. Sayyiduna Sarmah bin Abi Anas, a monotheist embraced Islam. The place was bought and the price was paid by Abu Bakr (RA) and Masjide Nabawi was built. The Prophet (SAWS) constructed the homes for Ummahaatul Moomineen. He made Brotherhood between Ansar and Muhajireen because the Muhaajireen had left their homes, properties and relatives in Makkah. To create familiarity among the Ansaar and Muhaajireen, the brotherhood between them was made. 45 Muhaajireen were made brothers of other 45 Ansaar. Ansaar played the role with their Muhajireen brothers was matchless. This relation of brotherhood was so strong that when an Ansari died, his Muhajir brother used to be his inheritor (later it was abrogated.). Adhan was introduced to call the Muslims for Salaah. To protect Muslims from the mischief of Jews, the written treaty was made between Muslims and Jews of Banu Qainqa’a, Bani Nadheer and Bani Qureizah. Battle of Wuddan took place. In brief, the migration marked the beginning of new era in their lives. (Seerate Mustafa 1/396-442)
The Prophet (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sayyiduna Ubaidah bin Harith (RA) towards Rabigh to follow the caravan of polytheists in Shawwal. He (SAWS) also sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas towards Kharrar. (Seerate Mustafa 2/49)
2nd Hjirah: Before Hijrah, Rasulullah (SAWS) used to offer Salaah in the way that it was easy to face both the Qiblahs: Beitullah nad Beitul Maqdis; but when he (SAWS) migrated to Madinah, it was not possible. So, he faced the Beitul Maqdis in Salaah only as it was impossible to face both the Qiblahs. Following 16-17 months, Allah the Almighty altered the Qiblah from Beitul Maqdis to the Holy Ka’abah permanently as it was also the desire of the Prophet (SAWS). In the last ten days of Sha’baan, the fasting in the month of Ramdhan was made compulsory. In the month of Ramadhan, the rulings regarding the Sadqatul Fitr and Eidu Fitr were revealed. The ruling regarding Eidul Adhhaa and the Sacrifice was revealed. Invoking Durud upon the Prophet (SAWS) was revealed. Zakaah (Alms) was made compulsory. (Seerate Mustafa 1/444-54)
The Sariyyah was sent under the leadership of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) towards Seiful Bahr to follow the Caravan of polytheists coming from Syria under the leadership of Abu Jahl. The Prophet (SAWS) himself participated in the Battle of Abwa/Wuddan. The battles of Buwaat and Oshairah, Badr Sughra, Sariyyah of Abdullah bin Jahash and famous battle of Badr (Badr Kubra) occurred. In Badr Kubra, Muslims got clear victory, 70 enemies were killed and 70 were arrested who were released after paying ransom. The battles of Qainqa’a and Saweeq took place. Siyyadah Fatimah (RA) was married to Sayyiduna Ali (RA). (Seerate Mustafa 2/48-166)
3rd Hijrah: Battles of Ghtfaan, Buhraan took place. Sariyyah of Zaid bin Hartha took place. Because of the attack from the Polytheists of Makkah, the Battle of Uhah took place. The tooth of the Prophet (SAWS) got martyred. Sayyidna Hamzah and Hanzalah along with other 70 sincere Sahabah got martyred. The body of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) was mutilated. The Battle of Hamraul Asad occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Hafsah bint Umar (RA). The Prophet’s daughter Ummu Kulthoom (RA) got married with Sayyiduna Uthman (RA). Sayyiduna Ali and Fatimah (RA) were blessed with baby boy, Hasan (RA). Alcohol was made Haraam (Prohibited). (Seerate Mustafa 2/167-246)
4th Hijrah: The Prophet (SAWS) sent different Sariyyah towards several tribes when he (SAWS) came to know their planning to attack. It was Sariyyah of Abu Salmah Abdullah bin Abdul Asad (RA) and Sariyyah Abdullah bin Uneis (RA). The Tragedy of Rajee’ occurred. Actually some people from Adhl and Qaarah came to the Prophet (SAWS) and asked him to send some scholars to teach them Islamic Rulings as they had embraced Islam. The Prophet (SAWS) sent 10 Sahabah under the leadership of Aasim bin Thaabi (RA), but they betrayed and killed 7 of them. Three of them: Abdullah, Zaid and Khubeib (RA) were arrested who were killed latter. Tragedy of Beeru Maunah: On the request and guarantee of Abu Barra, the Prophet (SAWS) sent 70 Sahabah towards Najd to preach Islam under the leadership of Mundhir bin Amr (RA). They stayed at Beer Maunah. On the conspiracy of Aamir bin Tufail, nephew of Abu Barra, the Ra’al, Asiyyah and Dhakwaan tribes killed the Sahabah (RA) except two of them. On this incident and tragedy, the Prophet (SAWS) started reading Qunut Naazilah and cursing those killers. Battles of Bnu Nazeer, Dhaatur Riqaa and Badr Mau’ad took place. Sayyiduna Husain (RA) was born. The Prophet (SAWS) married with Umme Salmah Makhzumiyah (RA) and Zainab bin Khuzaimah (RA). The Prophet (SAWS) ordered Sayyiduna Zaid bin Thaabit to learn Jew’s language, Hebrew. Ruling regarding Hijaab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/246-67)
5th Hijrah: Battle of Domatul Jandal occurred; because the Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Dumatul Jandal wanted to attack on Madinah, due to that the Prophet (SAWS) went in the company of one thousand Sahabah. As the people of Dumatul Jandal came to know, they ran away. The battle of Bani Mustaliq occurred and the whole tribe of Mustaliq embraced Islam. While returning from the battle, the story forged statement (Slander-Ifk) against Ummul Moomineen Aaisha (RA), fabricated by the hypocrites, took place. The Almighty Allah gave verdict through the holy Qura’an that she was innocent. According to some narrations, the ruling regarding Tayammum was revealed. The battle of trench occurred, because Hai bin Akhtab and Kinanah bin Rabee’ provoked the Qureish and Banu Ghatfa respectively to attack on Madina. About ten thousand people left for Madinah to finish Muslims. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he called a Meeting of Sahaba, where Sayyiduna Salman Farsi (RA) suggested digging Trench and it was done. This battle continued for 15 days. Three non-Muslims and six Muslims were killed. The battle of Quraizah occurred. On the occasion of the battle of Trench, Banu Quraizah broke the agreement; this was why this battle occurred. The people of Banu Quraizah were detained for 25 days, until they agreed upon to accept any decision of the Prophet (SAWS). He (SAWS) made Sayyiduna Sa’ad bin Mua’ad a judge of this case. He gave verdict to kill the male and to arrest the female. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Zainab bint Jahash (RA). On the occasion of Walimah, the ruling regarding Hijab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/267-320) A delegation 400 people of Muzainah Tribe came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) and they embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/120)
This article was originally published in November, 2019.
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi is an Islamic Scholar, graduated from Darul Uloom Deoband (World’s leading Islamic Seminary) and currently teaching at Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia. Views are personal.